-heathen: (Hebrew – plural goyim). The word in the original simply means 'nations' and came to denote those nations that were not Israelites.
At first the word goyim denoted generally all the nations of the world -Genesis 18:18; compare Galatians 3:8.
The Israelites afterwards became a people distinguished in a marked manner from the other goyim. They were a separate people (Leviticus 20:23; 26:14-45; Deuteronomy 28), and the other nations, the Amorites, Hittites, etc., were the goyim, the heathen, with whom the Israelites were forbidden to be associated in any way (Joshua 23:7; 1Kings 11:2). The practice of idolatry was the characteristic of these nations, and hence the word came to designate idolaters (Psalms 106:47; Jeremiah 46:28; Lamentations 1:3; Isaiah 36:18), the wicked (Psalms 9:5,15,17).
The corresponding Greek word in the New Testament, 'ethne', has similar shades of meaning. In Acts 22:21 and Galatians 3:14, it denotes the people of the earth generally; and in Matthew 6:7, an idolater. In modern usage the word denotes all nations that are strangers to revealed religion.
Hebrews:-A name applied to the Israelites in Scripture only by one who is a foreigner (Genesis 39:14, 17; 41:12, etc.), or by the Israelites when they speak of themselves to foreigners (Genesis 40:15; Exodus 1:19), or when spoken of an contrasted with other peoples -Genesis 43:32; Exodus 1:3, 7,15; Deuteronomy 15:12. In the New Testament there is the same contrast between Hebrews and foreigners -Acts 6:1; Philippians 3:5. Also see 'Israel':-
-hope: is the confident, the
sure expectation of things, a feeling which evinces
positive expectation. The opposite of hope is despair.
You can't have hope feeling guilty.
Christ in us is our hope -1Timothy
1:1; Colossians 1:27; Titus
2:13. He is our hope of salvation -1Thessalonians
To make yourself low (the way of the world is
to always put the self first; word is rooted also in 'submission to authority'
– or, to be willing to do what Christ
wants us to for our and others' benefit).
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