call it the Maunder minimum. Glaciers in Norway and Switzerland expanded
down mountain valleys, overrunning farms. The Thames River in England froze
for the first time in history.-The
current warming trend appears to be a balancing for that colder period.
One principle of the Universe is that all things eventually balance. "Human
actions also appear to have the potential to affect global climate. Aerosols.(small
particles).in the atmosphere
are increasing, mainly as a result of the emission of sulfur dioxide from
fossil fuel burning and also from biomass burning. These can absorb and
reflect solar radiation.(eventually
altering health). In addition, changes in aerosol concentrations
can alter cloud amount and cloud reflectivity. These processes tend to
produce cooling, which can, in some areas, offset warming due to
an enhanced greenhouse effect. The lifetime of these aerosols in the atmosphere
is much shorter.(days to weeks).than
most greenhouse gases.(decades to centuries),
so their concentrations (and thus their climatic impact) respond much faster
to changes in emissions." ... source
Solar activity increased sharply from early 1997 to late 1998 according
to NASA's, Solar and Heliospheric Observatory.(SOHO).
September 11, 2000 "James Hanson, head of NASA's
Goddard Institute of Space Studies in N.Y. states carbon dixiode
is "not the main contributor to global warming" and that "economically
wrenching" measures will not be needed.
The fossil fuels that produce most of the CO2
also throw sulfates and soot into the air, which contribute to cooling,
"a cooling so great that Hanson estimates that it has the same magnitute
but a sign that is opposite that of CO2
forcing." In other words CO2
cancels itself out because of the byproducts it comes with. "In addition,
has actually decreased. In 1998 and 1999, the world economy expanded at
6.8%, yet carbon emissions fell in both of those years."
Kasting, geoscientist at Pennsylvania State University says "The
ocean's carbonate supply.(used to make
shells and corals).is
replenished by carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide that
was once in the air ends up at the bottom of the ocean as carbonate rock.
The process has helped keep global warming under control...The process...is
a powerful regulator."
"Most plants, termed C3 plants after the type of photosynthesis they use,
require about 150 ppm.(parts per million).of
carbon dioxide to photosynthesize. Kasting says, "C3 plants make up about
ninety five percent of what's out there, including most of Earth's substantial
of food crops."
additions of CO2 into
mind global warming – 33 Soviet satellites are right now
leaking radiation into lower space from their onboard nuclear reactors).are
a small second order effect, since the extra CO2
is reabsorbed into the sea and biosphere at rates determined by temperatures
which are controlled by primary greenhouse gases and thereby largely by
various aspects of solar activity.
following three letters were to.American
Scientist, November / December,
1999, Volume 87,
1) "How significant is C02 in the atmosphere?
My engineering colleagues and I have long been aware that, on a molar basis,
the radiative absorption coefficients of water and of CO2
are very close in magnitude. Indeed, for some engineering calculations
it is common practice to add the two concentrations and treat the gas mixture
as one substance.
In the furnaces we study,
the molar ratio of water to CO2
is 2:1 and so the CO2
proves important. In the atmosphere, however, the ratio is about 30:1.(assuming
50 percent relative humidity at 60 degrees Fahrenheit). That
is, the average atmospheric absorbing gas composition is about 97 percent
water and 3 percent
variations well inside the noise of the water fluctuations, how can this
gas be important?" ...Robert H. Essenhigh, Department
of Mechanical Engineering, Ohio State University."
current, historically high concentration of CO2
in the atmosphere may trigger rapid climate change to either a hotter or
a cooler climate. The mechanism behind such shifts is unknown. Furthermore,
there is considerable evidence that past climate variations did not result
from changes in CO2concentrations.
Kendrick Taylor states that greenhouse gas concentration means little
"as long as the climate system stays within the stable mode range." Because
the records from both satellites and weather balloons show no warming in
the atmosphere from 5,000 to 25,000 feet over the past 20 years of extreme
levels, we still seem to be in a stable mode. Numerous records of surface
temperature also show little or no warming over the past 40 to 50 years.
This demonstrates that climate is not sensitive to CO2
concentrations up to present levels.-...continues