C r e a t i o n..N o t e s ,  P a g e  8
.
 
I couldn't disagree more with Professor Dawkin's statement. If the details of experiments 40 years ago elicit nothing momentous (when they have been regarded for years as a monumental triumph for the evolutionary theory, and published in virtually every book about evolution), then what about the observations (not even experiments) occurring over 100 years ago that led Darwin in 1859 (The Origin of Species) to the postulational conclusions in his theory of evolution? And hey, Richard? Surely you're not implying that detailed criticism is a bad thing! And hey! Do you know what Darwin thought of his own book
    Most evolutionists think that the history of biological evolution is the result of highly improbable events occurring without any noticeable direction. To believe this requires great belief in illusion.
    At least Professor Dawkins admits evolution isn't progressive. "A moth has no way to change its color over the course of its lifetime, even if it could somehow figure out that making the change would be advantageous. And if the moth can't adjust its color, it obviously can't transmit any adjustments to its descendants. A moth's acquired-pigment-(due to sooty pollution) is no more heritable than a suntan."
    And Brian Hayes' comment.

-photosynthesis:-the formation of carbohydrates in living plants from water and carbon dioxide (CO2) by the action of Sunlight on the chlorophyll. The chloroplast is the site of photosynthesis. Plants and microbes convert solar energy into usable chemical energy by the process of photosynthesis. 
    When a photosynthesizing cell catches a photon its potency causes a reaction in the cell that affects many adjacent- molecules.
   Organisms use the process of photosynthesis to convert CO2 from the air as the material for making sugar molecules. The process is complex involving biochemical reactions which include electron transfer through pigment molecules and amino acid residues, along with splitting water releasing oxygen, itself a complex process. 
    This amazingly effective photosynthetic apparatus is 'difficult' to improve upon by genetic manipulation (changing amino acid residues or introducing or deleting genes), as it works at an optimum consistently. Always did, or life would not be here at all, or at least, not the way we today undertand life to be.
    "Making the sugars also requires energy and electrons, with the energy coming from Sunlight and the electrons coming ultimately from water. And in the process, the water that loses its electrons is converted to oxygen. Plants assemble the sugars into a variety of carbohydrates that are either eaten as grains, fruits, and vegetables or burned as coal and the derivatives of oil petroleum.
    "The entire process is driven by Sunlight, whose energy is absorbed by a variety of types of pigments, especially the chlorophylls and carotenoids. This is why plants are green: Chlorophylls absorb blue and red light, and carotenoids absorb blue green light, leaving only the green and yellow light to be reflected or transmitted by leaves. 
    "The units by which photosynthetic organisms capture the energy of light are called photosystems. They are somewhat like a satellite dish antenna, in that from 100 to 5,000 pigment molecules (called collectively the "antenna") are clustered around a central receiving unit, which is called the reaction center. The photosystems are pigment/protein complexes located in specialized membranes called thylakoids. In plants and algae, these thylakoids are located inside cells in photosynthetic compartments called chloroplasts
    "The photosynthetic pigments are held in the appropriate orientation and position by proteins. When light energy is absorbed by an individual pigment molecule, the molecule reaches an excited state, and the molecule's newly acquired excitation energy is transferred from one pigment to the next until it reaches the reaction center chlorophyll. Here is where the real 'magic' of photosynthesis occurs: The excitation energy is converted to chemical energy as it is used for charge separation, in which an electron is transferred to a neighboring pigment. The reaction center and antenna work well together to maintain a high rate of electron transfer, even at lower light intensities.
    "The initial transfer of an electron from the chlorophyll in the reaction center leaves an 'electron hole' in the chlorophyll that is soon refilled. The transferred electron, meanwhile, proceeds through a long series of electron transfer reactions, being passed along a chain of cofactors (which are molecules bound to specific proteins). A crucial aspect of the process is that the flow of electrons from water to NADP also produces a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane. This proton gradient is used for synthesizing the high energy molecule ATP-(adenosine triphosphate), which works together with electrons on NADP in converting CO2 from the air into sugars. Because the ATP and NADP are storage molecules, they can complete their task of fixing CO2 independent of the presence of light. The set of reactions that together achieve CO2 fixation is referred to as the Calvin Benson cycle.-...continues next page

I n d e x-----------------------

 Subject Sampler_List of Topics_Search
A_B_C_D_E_F_G_H_I_J_K_L_M_N_O_P_Q_R_S_T_U_V_W_XYZ
Questions Lists_Free Stuff_Entrance
-
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.