C r e a t i o n  N o t e s  -  P a g e  7
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-NEURON:.consisting of the nerve cell body and all its processes ...more

-one is:.Language & Problems of Knowledge: The Managua Lectures, (1987) M I T Press.

-PARASITIC DODDER:.(Cuscuta epithymum): grows over other plants, extracting all its food from them through specially designed attachments which can penetrate the cells of its host. The diversity God built into creation is astounding!

-PEPPERED MOTHS:.excerpts from an article in.The Telegraph, London, England, as appeared in.The Calgary Herald, March 21, 1999, page D3: "Evolution experts are quietly admitting that one of their most cherished examples of Charles Darwin's theory, the rise and fall of the peppered moth, is based on a series of scientific blunders. Experiments using the moth in the 1950s and long believed to prove the truth of natural selection are now thought to be worthless, having been designed to come up with the right answer. Scientists now admit that they do not know the real explanation for the fate of Biston betularia, whose story is recounted in almost every textbook on evolution. 

According to the standard account, only one version of Biston existed before the mid 19th century; a white variety peppered with black spots. During the Industrial Revolution its numbers plummeted because pollution made it an easy prey for birds as (this mostly white moth) rested on the blackened (from pollution) trunks of trees. It its place (allegedly having adapted to its environment), a mutant, pitch black form of the peppered moth began to thrive, as it could rest on tree trunks without fear of being eaten. Precisely as predicted by Darwin's theory of natural selection, this 'fitter' mutant moth rapidly outnumbered the white version, reaching 100 per cent levels in some industrial areas.

However, in the 1950s, researchers discovered a resurgence of the white variety, prompting the idea that Darwin had struck again through the Clean Air Acts, which had led to the return of unpolluted trees. These allowed the white moths to regain their Darwinian ascendancy, while the numbers of the now all to visible black variety fell. 

This neat example of Darwinian evolution in action has been thought to be supported by solid evidence in the form of experiments begun in the 1950s by the late Oxford University scientist Dr. Bernard Kettlewell. But now, evolution experts are pointing to blunders in Kettlewell's research that undermine the theory about the rise and fall of Biston. 

Scientists are beginning to concede that the white variety flourished again well before the return of pollution free trees, while the black type continued to thrive in areas unaffected by industry. 

Experiments have also shown that neither moth chooses resting places best suited to its camouflage

Most damning of all, despite 40 years of effort, scientists have seen only two moths resting on trees – the key element of the standard story and Kettlewell's experiments. 

According to Dr. Michael Majerus, an expert on the moth at the University of Cambridge, Kettlewell tried to confirm the standard story simply by pinning dead moths on to parts of the trees where they could be seen easily by birds. 

Majerus said "He stuck them in low branches because he wanted to sit in his hide and watch them being eaten. They actually seem to rest in the shadows under branches, which makes even the black ones difficult to spot by birds." 

Scientists are now beginning to doubt even the basic presumption that birds were responsible for the changing fortunes of the different types of Biston. 
    
According to Professor Jerry Coyne, an expert on evolution at the University of Chicago, when Kettlewell could not get the moths he needed naturally, he bred them in his laboratory. "That could affect their vigour, so the level of bird predation he saw was just due to the fact that his moths were raised in the lab" said Coyne. 

"In one case, Kettlewell actually used to warm them up on the bonnet (hood) of his car." "I'm certainly not saying that Darwin is wrong," he said. "The real cause is probably connected with pollution..but beyond that, I wouldn't want to go." He added, however, that Kettlewell's widely quoted experiments are essentially useless. "There's a lot of wishful thinking and design flaws in them, and they wouldn't get published today." 

Richard Dawkins, professor of the public understanding of science at Oxford University and author of.The Selfish Gene.said, The details of any experiments done 40 years ago are bound to be vulnerable to detailed criticism. But in any case, nothing momentous hangs in these experiments." END OF ARTICLE

Chris D. Osborne's Master's Thesis.A Reevaluation of the Engilish Peppered Moth's Use as an Example of Evolution in Progress, available from the Institute for Creation Research, Santee, CA. 1985, provides more on the above.

It is alleged in the 'phraud' that it took decades for the adaption to occur. However, the African savannah grasshopper can change color instantly!

University professor Gary Parker in his book.Creation Facts of Life, 1994, Master Books, states: "Darwin himself was a cautious scientist, painstaking in his work.

"But others, especially T.H. Huxley and Herbert Spencer, insisted on making natural selection the touchstone of a new religion, a 'religion without revelation' as Julian Huxley later called it.

"For them, as for many others, the real significance of the Darwinian revolution was religious and philosophic, not scientific. These early evolutionists were basically anti creationists who wanted to explain design without a Designer."....continues next page

I n d e x...........................

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