B i b l e--S h o r t  H i s t o r y  O f  E a c h  B o o k
J u d g e s ,--R u t h ,--1 s t--a n d--2 n d--S a m u e l
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J u d g e s: Written 1406 B.C.E. The book of Judges is the history of Israel during the government of the Judges, who were occasional deliverers, raised up by God to rescue Israel from their oppressors, to reform their spiritual state, and to administer justice to the people. 
    The state of God's people does not appear in this book as very prosperous, nor is their character so religious as might have been expected. 
    There were many believers among them, and the service of the ancient tabernacle was attended to.
    Judges is the name given to those rulers who presided over the affairs of the Israelites during the interval between the death of Joshua and the accession of Saul-(Judges 2:18), a period of general anarchy and confusion. Judges is the history of Israel's passing into the land of Canaan, conquering and dividing it, under the command of Joshua, and their history until his death. The power and truth of God in fulfilling his promises to Israel, and in executing his justly threatened vengeance on the Canaanites are displayed. 
    Their authority was limited by the law alone and in doubtful cases they were directed to consult the divine King through the priest by Urim and Thummim. Their authority extended only over those tribes by whom they had been elected or acknowledged. There was no income attached to their office, and they bore no external marks of dignity.
    The only cases of direct divine appointment are those of Gideon (see a Bible Dictionary) and Samson, and the latter stood in the peculiar position of having been from before his birth ordained 'to begin to deliver Israel.'
    Deborah was called to deliver Israel, but was already a judge. Samuel was called by the Lord to be a prophet but not a judge, which ensued from the high gifts the people recognized as dwelling in him; and as to Eli, the office of judge seems to have devolved naturally or rather ex officio (by virtue of position) upon him." Of five of the judges, Tola (Judges 10:1), Jair (3), Ibzan, Elon, and Abdon (Judges 12:8-15), we have no record at all beyond the bare fact that they were judges. Sacred history is not the history of individuals but of the kingdom of God in its onward progress. R u t h: means 'a friend'. Written 1312 B.C.E. Widow to Mahlon. On the death of Elimelech her father, Naomi, Ruth's mother, came with Ruth, her daughter-in-law, who refused to leave her, to Bethlehem, the old home from which Elimelech had migrated. There she had a rich relative, Boaz, to whom Ruth was eventually married.
    She became the mother of Obed, the grandfather of David. Thus Ruth, a Gentile, is among the maternal progenitors of our Lord -Matthew 1:5.
    Ruth, though not of the chosen race, was, like the Canaanitess Tamar (Genesis 38:29; Matthew 1:3) and the Canaanitess Rahab (Matthew 1:5), privileged to become the ancestress of David, and so of 'great David's greater Son' -Ruth 4:18-22.
    This book contains excellent examples of faith, piety, patience, humility, industry, and loving kindness, in the common events of life. Also we see the special care which God takes of our smallest concerns, encouraging us to full trust therein.
    About: Elimelech and his sons die in the land of Moab -Ruth chapters 1-5.
    Naomi returns home -Ruth chapters 6-14.
    Orpah stays behind, but Ruth goes with Naomi -Ruth chapters 15-18.
     They come to Bethlehem -Ruth chapters 19-22. 1 s t-&-2 S a m u e l: means 'heard of God'. Written 1055 and 1018 B.C.E. respectively. The peculiar circumstances connected with his birth are recorded in 1Samuel 1:20.
    Hannah, one of the two wives of Elkanah, who came up to Shiloh to worship before the Lord, earnestly prayed to God that she might become the mother of a son. Her prayer was graciously granted; and after the child was weaned she brought him to Shiloh and consecrated him to the Lord as a perpetual Nazarite -1Samuel 1:23-2:11.
    Here his bodily wants and training were attended to by the women who served in the tabernacle, while Eli cared for his religious culture. Thus, probably, twelve years of his life passed away. "The child Samuel grew on, and was in favour both with the Lord, and also with men" -1Samuel 2:26; compare Luke 2:52.
    It was a time of great and growing degeneracy in Israel -Judges 21:19-21; 1Samuel 2:12-17,22.
    The Philistines, who of late had greatly increased in number and in power, were practically masters of the country, and kept the people in subjection -1Samuel 10:5; 13:3.
    In the book of 1Samuel we have an account of Eli and the wickedness of his sons; also of Samuel, his character and actions. Then of the advancement of Saul to be the king of Israel, and his ill behaviour, until his death made way for David's succession to the throne, who was an eminent type of Christ. David's patience, modesty, constancy, persecution by open enemies and feigned friends, are a pattern and example to the church, and to every member of it. Many things in this book encourage the faith, hope, and patience of the suffering believer. It contains also many useful cautions and awful warnings.
    About: Elkanah and his family -Samuel chapters 1-8.
    Hannah's prayer Samuel chapters 9-18.
    Samuel, Hannah presents him to the Lord -Samuel chapters 19-28.
    In the book of 2Samuel is the history of the reign of king David. It relates his victories, the growth of the prosperity of Israel, and his reformation of the state of religion. With these events are recorded the grievous sins he committed, and the family as well as public troubles with which he was punished. We here meet with many things worthy of imitation, and many that are written for our warning. The history of king David is given in Scripture with much faithfulness, and from it he appears, to those who fairly balance his many virtues and excellent qualities against his faults, to have been a great and good man.
    About: Tidings brought to David of the death of Saul -2Samuel chapters 1-10.
    The Amalekite is put to death -2Samuel chapters 11-16.
    David's lamentation for Saul and Jonathan -2Samuel chapters 17-27.
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